Category: Electronics

  • 3.7 to 1.5 V Buck Converter with MC34063AP

    My daughter got a toy train which uses AA sized battery cells to operate. It has space to put two AA cells in parallel, so it requires just 1.5 V to work. To avoid buying AA cells, I tried to make it rechargeable with a 18650 lithium-ion cell with protection board having USB port. But […]

  • SEPIC Converter Calculations For Fixed Output Voltage

    Attached document demonstrates calculations involved for a SEPIC converter. Calculations are based on “AN-1484 Designing A SEPIC Converter” by Dongbing Zhang from Texas Instruments.

  • Electret Mic Stereo Preamplifier

    I was looking for a simple per-amplifier circuit. Found one at I made minor modifications and here is my version.

  • LED Light with CYT1000B

    LED Light with CYT1000B

    Lighting LED with AC main supply were not that easy. Mainly it required some sort of SMPS with current controlling circuitry. But it is changing. Now there are integrated circuits available specially designed to help to light LEDs with few extra components. One of such IC is CYT1000B. I like CYT1000B more compared similar ICs […]

  • തെർമോക്കപ്പ്ൾ

    ചൂട് അളക്കാനായി ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്ന ഒരു വഴിയാണ് തെർമോക്കപ്പ്ൾ. രണ്ട് വ്യത്യസ്ത ലോഹസങ്കരങ്ങൾ ചേർത്തുണ്ടാക്കുന്ന ലളിതമായ ഒരു ലോഹക്കഷ്ണമോ ദണ്ഡോ ആണിത്. ചൂടിന്റെ അളവനുസരിച്ച് ഇത് വളരെ ചെറിയ അളവിൽ വൈദ്യുതിയുണ്ടാക്കും. അതിന്റെ വോൾട്ടേജ് നില ചൂടിന്‌ ആനുപാതികമായിരിക്കും. ഇങ്ങനെയുണ്ടാകുന്ന വോൾട്ടേജ് നില അളന്ന് അതിൽ നിന്നും ചൂട് എത്രയാണ് എന്ന് കണക്കുകൂട്ടി കണ്ടെത്താൻ കഴിയും.പക്ഷെ തെർമോക്കപ്പ്ലിന്റെ വോട്ടേജ് നില നേരിട്ട് അളക്കുന്നത് ശരിയായ രീതിയല്ല. കാരണം വളരെ ചെറിയ വോൾട്ടേജായിരിക്കും അത്. ഉദാഹരണം ഒരു K ടൈപ്പ് […]

  • Thermocouple Amplifier with OP07C Op-Amp

    Thermocouple Amplifier with OP07C Op-Amp

    Recently I created a soldering station based on Arduino Pro mini. It has to read temperature data from a thermocouple within the soldering iron. Thermocouple produces a very little voltage, around up to 30 Milli volts for soldering irons. So, the soldering station uses an op-amp based circuit to amplify those small signals from the […]

  • PWM with STM8S

    PWM is a great way to control brightness of LEDs, speed of motors, etc. Most microcontrollers including STM8S has built in ability to generate PWM signals. In this article I share simple code to generate PWM signal in STM8S microcontroller. However, I don’t write anything about PWM theory other than basic calculation to get required […]

  • Bootloader-less Programming Arduino Pro Mini

    Recently I was creating a configurable timer circuit based Arduino Pro Mini. The circuit has a momentary push button which user can press to turn ON the device. The device will turn OFF itself once the time is elapsed. On starting, Arduino has to turn on a relay to get permanent connection to power source, […]

  • STM8S: Timer 2 with Overflow Interrupt

    In previous post I showed how we can use Timer 2 as simple counter. In this post I am going to show how we can program to have interrupt when its value overflow. As simple experiment, we will toggle an LED in each second within the interrupt handler (also called ISR, Interrupt Service Routine).

  • STM8S: Use Timer 2 as Simple Counter to Blink LED (without Interrupt)

    Timers inside MCUs are very useful and essential peripherals for timing applications. In this article I will show Timer 2 in an STM8S (specifically STM8S103F3) can be used to blink an LED.